Oman before IslamOman's Names Sumerian tablets refer to a country called Magan, a name thought to refer to Oman’s ancient copper mines. Mezoun is derived from the word muzn, which means abundant flowing water. The present-day name of the country, Oman, is believed to originate from the Arab tribes who migrated to its territory from the Uman region of Yemen. Many tribes settled in Oman making a living by fishing, herding or stock breeding and many present day Omani families are able to trace their ancestral roots to other parts of Arabia.From the 6th century BC to the arrival of Islam in the 7th century AD, Oman was controlled and/or influenced by three Persian dynasties, the Achaemenids, Parthians and Sassanids. Achaemenids in the 6th century BC controlled and influenced the Oman peninsula. This was most likely exerted from a coastal center such as Sohar. By about 250 B.C. the Parthian dynasty brought the Persian Gulf under their control and extended their influence as far as Oman. Because they needed to control the Persian Gulf trade route, the Parthians established garrisons in Oman. In the third century A.D. the Sasanids succeeded the Parthians and held the area until the rise of Islam four centuries later.
The arrival of Islam On the advent of Islam, the religion reached Oman during the Islamic prophet Muhammad's lifetime. The conversion of Omanis is usually ascribed to Amr ibn al-As, who visited the region by the middle of the seventh century AD. The Omanis were among the first people to embrace Islam voluntarily In around 630 AD when the Muhammed sent his envoy Amr ibn Al As to meet Jaifar and ‘Abd - the joint rulers of Oman at that time - to invite them to accept the faith, in which he eventually succeeded.In accepting Islam, Oman became an Ibadhi state which is named after alkhoarej, ruled by an elected leader, the Imam. During the early years of the Islamic mission Oman played a major role in the Wars of Apostasy that occurred after the death of Muhammad and also took part in the great Islamic conquests by land and sea in Iraq, Persia and beyond. However, its most prominent role in this respect was through its extensive trading and seafaring activities in East Africa, particularly during the19th century, when it propagated Islam in many of East Africa’s coastal regions, and certain areas of Central Africa.Omanis also carried the message of Islam with them to China and the Asian ports.Oman was ruled by Umayyads between 661-750, Abbasids between 750-931, 932-933 and 934-967, Qarmatians between 931-932 and between 933-934, Buyids between 967-1053, Seljuks of Kirman between 1053-1154.
The Portuguese settlementThe Portuguese occupied Muscat for a 140-year period 1508–1648, arriving a decade after Vasco da Gama discovered the seaway to India. In need of an outpost to protect their sea lanes, the Europeans built up and fortified the city, where remnants of their colonial architectural style still remain.Rebellious tribes drove out the Portuguese, but were pushed out themselves about a century later 1741 by the leader of a Yemeni tribe leading a massive army from various other tribes, who began the current line of ruling sultans. A brief Persian invasion a few years later was the final time Oman would be ruled by a foreign power. Oman has been self governing ever since. Oman and East African EmpireThe Sultan's Palace buildings in Zanzibar which was once Oman's capital and residence of its Sultans.In the 1690s Saif bin Sultan, the imam of Oman, pressed down the East African coast. A major obstacle was Fort Jesus, housing the garrison of a Portuguese settlement at Mombasa. After a two-year siege, it fell to Saif in 1698.Thereafter the Omanis easily ejected the Portuguese from Zanzibar and from all other coastal regions north of Mozambique. Zanzibar was a valuable property as the main slave market of the east African coast, and became an increasingly important part of the Omani empire, a fact reflected by the decision of the greatest 19th century sultan of Oman, Sa'id ibn Sultan, to make it from 1837 his main place of residence. Sa'id built impressive palaces and gardens in Zanzibar.
Rivalry between his two sons was resolved, with the help of forceful British diplomacy, when one of them, Majid, succeeded to Zanzibar and to the many regions claimed by the family on the East African coast. The other, Thuwaini, inherited Muscat and Oman.
Ted during celebrations, which consists of mashed rice flavoured with spices. Another popular festival meal is shuwa, which is meat cooked very slowly (sometimes for up to two days) in an underground clay oven. The meat becomes extremely tender and it is impregnated with spices and herbs before cooking to give it a very distinct taste. Fish is often used in main dishes too, and the kingfish is a popular ingredient. Mashuai is a meal comprising whole spit-roasted kingfish served with lemon rice. The rukhal bread is a thin, round bread originally baked over a fire made from palm leaves. It is eaten at any meal, typically served with Omani honey for breakfast or crumbled over curry for dinner. Chicken, fish and mutton are regularly used in dishes
Although spices, herbs, onion, garlic and lime are liberally used in traditional Omani cuisine, unlike similar Asian food, it is not hot. Omani cuisine is also distinct from the indigenous foods of other Arab states of the Persian Gulf and even varies within the Sultanate's different regions. There are also significant differences in cuisine between different regions of Oman.
1 kg lamb legs, pieces with bones
9 cups water or 2¼ liters
3 small cinnamon sticks
1teaspoon whole cardamom pods
1 teaspoon whole cloves
1 teaspoon whole black peppers
½ cup water or 125 ml, extra quantity
3 medium onions or 375 g, sliced
4 tablespoons ghee
3 cloves garlic, crushed
3 tablespoons raisins
1 tin canned chickpeas or 400 g, (dingo) drained(or 1 cup dried and soaked overnight)
4 tablespoons omani mixed spicess
½ teaspoon saffron filaments
½ cup rose water or 125 ml
3 cubes Mutton Bouillon (if you have lamb stock or chicken stock use 3 cups as part of the above water)
2½ cups basmati rice or 500 g, washed and drained
Put lamb pieces and water in a large pot, bring to boil and remove froth as it appears. Add the cinnamon sticks, and all whole spices. Cover and simmer over low heat for 1½ hours or until the meat becomes tender. Remove lamb pieces, put them in a bowl and set aside. Drain the stock and set aside.
Cook the extra water and onion in a large sauce pan with occasional stirring for 5 minutes or until water is steamed and the onions become tender. Add 2 tablespoons of the ghee (reserve 2 tablespoons) and stir for another 3 minutes or until onions become golden in color. Add garlic, raisins, dingo (chickpeas), 1 tablespoon of Omani mixed spices (reserve 3 tablespoons), saffron leaves and rose water, stir for 1 minutes then set aside
In a large pot put 4½ cups of drained stock; add more water if stock is not enough. Add the remaining 2 tablespoons of ghee, the remaining 3 tablespoons of Omani mixed spices, the Bouillon cubes and rice. Bring to boil with occasional stirring, cover and cook over low heat for 10 minutes or until rice is ½ cooked, add the boiled lamb pieces on top of the rice, cover and cook on low heat again for another 10-15 minutes or until rice is cooked.
Serve the rice and lamb in plate topped with the onion mixture.
Omani Bizar A’Shuwa
2 cloves garlic, chopped
1 Tbs (15 ml) cumin seeds
1 Tbs (15 ml) coriander seeds
1 Tbs (15 ml) cardamom seeds
2 tsp (10 ml) cayenne pepper
1/2 tsp (2 ml) ground turmeric
About 2 Tbs (30 ml) distilled vinegar
Combine all ingredients in an electric food processor and process until a thick paste is formed, adding more vinegar if necessary. Store refrigerated in an airtight container for up to 2 weeks. Makes about 1/4 cup (60 ml).
Note: This is a famous meal in Oman, prepared during the holidays. Very strong on spices. I think if we reduce the spices to two tbsps we will get a balanced and flavourful dish
SAKO - a traditional caramelized tapioca sweet
3/4 cup of sako (tapioca), soaked in 1 1/2 cups of water for 1 hour
1 Tablespoon saffron, soaked with the tapioca
1/2 cup of butter
1/8 - 1/4 cup of rose water, depending on its strength and your tastes
1 Tablespoon of ground cardamom
1 1/2 Tablespoons ground cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon ground ginger
chopped nuts, such as pistachio nuts, or walnuts
2. Add the sako (tapioca) with its water and the rest of the ingredients along with 2 cups of water. Bring to a boil, while stirring. The sugar will clump at the bottom of the pan at first, but will then gradually dissolve in the liquid.
3. Once it is boiling reduce heat to the lowest level. Continue cooking, lightly boiling, until the sako (tapioca) is cooked (i.e. clear and soft). The time required for this will depend on the size of the sako (tapioca), with smaller tapioca cooking faster than the larger beads. Add more water, if need. The final texture should be thick and jelly-like, yet still thin enough to pour into the serving dish.
4. Take off of the fire and spread in a glass/ceramic casserole dish/plate (or smaller individual-serving bowls). Top with chopped nuts. Best eaten at room temperature or slightly warm.